Encephalitis explained Types of encephalitis Infectious encephalitis Zika virus Zika virus is currently high profile in the news and other media. There appears to be strong evidence to suggest the virus (transmitted by mosquitoes) is causing microcephaly in some newborn children in South America, particularly Brazil. Microcephaly is a neurological condition that occurs because a child's developing brain doesn't grow properly. It can cause a lifetime of intellectual and physical disability. Recently The New England Journal of Medicine published a letter from French doctors and researchers which documented a case of meningoencephalitis (inflammation of both the meninges and the brain) in an 81 year old man who had recently been on a cruise of New Caledonia, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands and New Zealand. He survived and is reported to have made a relatively good outcome. In the October 2016 Journal of Clinical Virology, a short communication paper was published on a Fatal encephalitis associated with Zika virus infection in an adult. In 2017, a paper was published detailing Encephalomyelitis following Zika Virus Infection. We will continue to monitor research to ascertain whether there is a heightened risk of developing encephalitis from the Zika Virus. If you have any concerns about travel plans or associated issues please take the usual precautions to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes. For more information about general preventive measures please visit our Encephalitis-guidelines for travellers page.