Adult Epidemiology
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Epidemiology of Meningitis and Encephalitis in the United States from 2011-2014.

Rodrigo Hasbun, Ning Rosenthal, JM Balada-Llasat, Jessica Chung, Steve Duff, Samuel Bozzette, Louise Zimmer, Christine C. Ginocchio

Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Apr 17. doi: 10.1093/cid/cix319.

Adult Infectious Encephalitis
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Diagnostic Pathways as Social and Participatory Practices: The Case of Herpes Simplex Encephalitis

Jessie Cooper , Ciara Kierans, Sylviane Defres, Ava Easton, Rachel Kneen, Tom Solomon

PLoS ONE 11(3): e0151145. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0151145

Chikungunya virus–associated encephalitis. A cohort study on La Réunion Island, 2005–2009

Patrick Gérardin, Thérèse Couderc, Marc Bintner, Patrice Tournebize, Michel Renouil, Jérome Lémant, Véronique Boisson, Gianandrea Borgherini, Frédérik Staikowsky, Frédéric Schramm, 
Marc Lecuit, Alain Michault On behalf of the Encephalchik Study Group

Neurology 86 January 5, 2016

Normocellular CSF in herpes simplex encephalitis

Saraya AW, Wacharapluesadee S, Petcharat S, Sittidetboripat N, Ghai S, Wilde H, Hemachudha T 

BMC Res Notes. 2016 Feb 15;9(1):95. doi: 10.1186/s13104-016-1922-9.

Fatal encephalitis associated with Zika virus infection in an adult

Cristiane N. Soares (PhD), Patrícia Brasil (PhD) , Raquel Medialdea Carrera (MSc), Patricia Sequeira (PhD), Ana Bispo de Filippis , Vitor A. Borges, Fernando Theophilo (MD, PhD), Mark A. Ellul (MRCP), Tom Solomon (FRCP)

Journal of Clinical Virology 83 (2016) 63–65

Adult Autoimmune Post Infectious
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Post-infectious Encephalitis in Adults: Diagnosis and Management

R. Sonneville, I. Klein, T. de Broucker, M. Wolff , BichateClaude, Henri Huchard 

JOURNAL OF INFECTION (2009) 58, 321-328

Adult Autoimmune Other
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Red Flags: Clinical Signs for Identifying Autoimmune Encephalitis in Psychiatric Patients

Julia Herken and Harald Prüss

Front. Psychiatry, 16 February 2017 |

Intracellular and non-neuronal targets of voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibodies

Bethan Lang, Mateusz Makuch, Teresa Moloney, Inga Dettmann, Swantje Mindorf, Christian Probst, Winfried Stoecker, Camilla Buckley, Charles R Newton, M Isabel Leite, Paul Maddison, Lars Komorowski, Jane Adcock, Angela Vincent, Patrick Waters, Sarosh R Irani

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry (published online first) 2017;0:1–9. doi:10.1136/jnnp-2016-314758

G2A1B3AA receptor antibodies and their clinical associations

Patrick J. Waters and Sarosh R. Irani

Neurology March 14, 2017 88:1010-1011; published ahead of print February 15, 2017

DPPX antibody–associated encephalitis: Main syndrome and antibody effects

Makoto Hara, Helena Ariño, Mar Petit-Pedrol, Lidia Sabater, Maarten J. Titulaer, Eugenia Martinez-Hernandez, Marco W.J. Schreurs, Myrna R. Rosenfeld, Francesc Graus, and Josep Dalmau

Neurology,  3 March 2017, 10.1212/WNL.0000000000003796  

Investigations in GABAA receptor antibody-associated encephalitis

Marianna Spatola, Mar Petit-Pedrol, Mateus Mistieri Simabukuro, Thaís Armangue, Fernanda J. Castro, Maria I. Barcelo Artigues, Maria R. Julià Benique, Leslie Benson, Mark Gorman, Ana Felipe, Ruben L. Caparó Oblitas, Myrna R. Rosenfeld, Francesc Graus, and Josep Dalmau

Neurology March 14, 2017 88:1012-1020; published ahead of print February 15, 2017

Child Neurology: Rocky Mountain spotted fever encephalitis

Michael J. Bradshaw, Kathryn B. Lalor, NgocHanh Vu, Sumit Pruthi, and Karen C. Bloch
Neurology. 2017; 88:e92-e95

Adult Diagnosis, Treatment and Outcomes
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Diagnostic Pathways as Social and Participatory Practices: The Case of Herpes Simplex Encephalitis

Jessie Cooper, Ciara Kierans, Sylviane Defres, Ava Easton, Rachel Kneen, Tom Solomon

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis is a potentially devastating disease, with significant rates of mortality and co-morbidities. Although the prognosis for people with HSV encephalitis can be improved by prompt treatment with aciclovir, there are often delays involved in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. In response, National Clinical Guidelines have been produced for the UK which make recommendations for improving the management of suspected viral encephalitis. However, little is currently known about the everyday experiences and processes involved in the diagnosis and care of HSV encephalitis. The reported study aimed to provide an account of the diagnosis and treatment of HSV encephalitis from the perspective of people who had been affected by the condition. Thirty narrative interviews were conducted with people who had been diagnosed with HSV encephalitis and their significant others. The narrative accounts reveal problems with gaining access to a diagnosis of encephalitis and shortfalls in care for the condition once in hospital. In response, individuals and their families work hard to obtain medical recognition for the problem and shape the processes of acute care. As a consequence, we argue that the diagnosis and management of HSV encephalitis needs to be considered as a participatory process, which is co-produced by health professionals, patients, and their families. The paper concludes by making recommendations for developing the current management guidelines by formalising the critical role of patients and their significant others in the identification, and treatment of, HSV encephalitis.

PLOS ONE | DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0151145 March 9, 2016

Neuroimaging in encephalitis: analysis of imaging findings and interobserver agreement

J. Granerod, N.W.S. Davies, W. Mukonoweshuro, A. Mehta, K. Das, M. Lim, T. Solomon, S. Biswas, L. Rosella, D.W.G. Brown, N.S. Crowcroft on behalf of the UK Public Health England Aetiology of Encephalitis Study Group

Clinical Radiology (2016),

Increased rates of sequelae post-encephalitis in individuals attending primary care practices in the United Kingdom: a population-based retrospective cohort study

Julia Granerod, Nicholas W. S. Davies, Parashar P. Ramanuj, Ava Easton, David W. G. Brown, Sara L. Thomas

J Neurol. 2016 Oct 20. [Epub ahead of print)

Adult Recovery and Rehabilitation
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Persistent anterograde amnesia following limbic encephalitis associated with antibodies to the voltage-gated potassium channel complex

Christopher R Butler, Thomas D Miller, Manveer S Kaur,Ian W Baker, Georgie D Boothroyd, Nathan A Illman,Clive R Rosenthal, Angela Vincent, Camilla J Buckley


Objective: Limbic encephalitis (LE) associated with antibodies to the voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKC) is a potentially reversible cause of cognitive impairment. Despite the prominence of cognitive dysfunction in this syndrome, little is known about patients’ neuropsychological profile at presentation or their long-term cognitive outcome.

Methods: We used a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery to evaluate cognitive function longitudinally in 19 patients with VGKC-LE.

Results: Before immunotherapy, the group had significant impairment of memory, processing speed and executive function, whereas language and perceptual organisation were intact. At follow-up, cognitive impairment was restricted to the memory domain, with processing speed and executive function having returned to the normal range. Residual memory function was predicted by the antibody titre at presentation.

Conclusions: The results show that, despite broad cognitive dysfunction in the acute phase, patients with VGKC-LE often make a substantial recovery with immunotherapy but may be left with permanent anterograde amnesia.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2014 Apr;85(4):387-91. doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2013-306724. Epub 2014 Jan 8


Re-acquisition of person knowledge in semantic memory disorders

Bonnie-Kate Dewar, Karalyn Patterson , Barbara A Wilson, Kim S Graham

Semantic memory impairment, from either non-progressive or neurodegenerative brain injury, has a significant impact on day-to-day functioning. Few studies have investigated the best methods for supporting relearning of new semantic knowledge in semantically-impaired individuals, even though these investigations also provide an opportunity to explore how the hippocampal and temporal neocortical systems interact in the acquisition of semantic facts. In the current study, four participants (three who had suffered from herpes simplex viral encephalitis and one with a diagnosis of semantic dementia) were asked to learn new facts about famous people using mnemonic and errorless learning paradigms. Home practice was also encouraged. Training resulted in significant improvements to all participants’ naming of the individual and recall of a semantic fact about the famous person. Learning was maintained when home practice ceased. Learning also generalised to naming of a different photograph in three individuals, although generalisation of naming to a different semantic fact was less robust. This study confirms that errorless learning paradigms can be used to help boost naming and semantic knowledge in semanticallyimpaired individuals. This finding supports theoretical accounts in which different temporal structures are capable of supporting acquisition of new semantic facts independently, albeit less efficiently than when both systems are available.

Neuropsychological Rehabilitation: An International Journal, 19:3, 383-421, DOI:


Child Epidemiology 
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An outbreak of enterovirus 71 in metropolitan Sydney: enhanced surveillance and lessons learnt

Zander A, Britton PN, Navin T, Horsley E, Tobin S, McAnulty JM.

OBJECTIVE: To report the findings of the enhanced surveillance set up in New South Wales in response to the recent outbreak of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection.
DESIGN AND SETTING: A two-armed enhanced public health surveillance system including statewide emergency department surveillance and clinical surveillance at the Sydney Children's Hospitals Network.
PARTICIPANTS: Children aged less than 10 years with suspected or confirmed enterovirus infection.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Epidemiology of the outbreak, including weekly case counts, demographic information, geographic spread of the outbreak, and clinical presentation and progression.
RESULTS: Statewide weekly case counts indicate that an epidemic of EV71 infection occurred in NSW from December 2012 until May 2013. Around 119 children were reported with disease severe enough to warrant admission to a tertiary Sydney children's hospital. Cases were spread throughout the Sydney metropolitan area and there is some evidence of geographic migration of the outbreak. Presenting features included fever, lethargy, myoclonus and skin rash. Only 24% of cases
presented with classical hand, foot and mouth disease.
CONCLUSIONS: EV71 infection is likely to continue to be a public health problem in Australia. Surveillance of routinely collected emergency department data can provide a useful indication of its activity in the community.

Med J Aust. 2014 Dec 11;201(11):663-6.

The role of environmental factors in the spatial distribution of Japanese encephalitis in mainland China

Wang L, Hu W, Soares Magalhaes RJ, Bi P, Ding F, Sun Hu, Li S, Yin W, Wei L, Liu Q, Haque U, Sun Y, Huang L, Tong S,  Clements AC, Zhang W, Li C

Environ Int. 2014 Dec;73:1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2014.07.004. Epub 2014 Jul  26

Population-based surveillance of neonatal herpes simplex virus infection in Australia, 1997-2011.

Jones CA, Raynes-Greenow C, Isaacs D

Neonatal HSV Study Investigators and Contributors to the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit.

Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Aug 15;59(4):525-31. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu381. Epub 2014 May 20.

Child Infectious
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Deep sequencing reveals persistence of cell-associated mumps vaccine virus in chronic encephalitis

Sofia Morfopoulou, Edward T. Mee, Sarah M. Connaughton, Julianne R. Brown, Kimberly Gilmour, WK ‘Kling’ Chong, W. Paul Duprex, Deborah Ferguson, Mike Hubank, Ciaran Hutchinson, Marios Kaliakatsos, Stephen McQuaid, Simon Paine, Vincent Plagnol, Christopher Ruis, Alex Virasami, Hong Zhan, Thomas S. Jacques, Silke Schepelmann, Waseem Qasim, Judith Breuer

Acta Neuropathol (2016). doi:10.1007/s00401-016-1629-y

An emerging opportunistic infection: fatal astrovirus (VA1/HMO-C) encephalitis in a pediatric stem cell transplant recipient.

Lum SH, Turner A, Guiver M, Bonney D, Martland T, Davies E, Newbould M, Brown J, Morfopoulou S, Breuer J, Wynn R.

Transpl Infect Dis. 2016 Sep 15. doi: 10.1111/tid.12607. [Epub ahead of print]

Human Coronavirus OC43 Associated with Fatal Encephalitis

Morfopoulou SBrown JRDavies EGAnderson GVirasami AQasim WChong WKHubank MPlagnol VDesforges MJacques TSTalbot PJBreuer J.

N Engl J Med 2016; 375:497-498August 4, 2016DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc1509458