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Encephalitis lethargica (EL) is a serious and rare form of encephalitis. The neurologist Oliver Sacks described the ‘awakenings’ of past cases, but recent papers have described contemporary cases and defined the disease in modern terms.
HIV can affect the brain in different ways: HIV-meningoencephalitis, HIV-encephalopathy (HIV-associated dementia) and mild neurocognitive disorder.
SSPE is a very rare type of encephalitis which can follow natural measles virus infection. Unfortunately, SSPE is a progressive form of encephalitis without a cure.