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Viruses are the most common cause of infectious encephalitis.
Bacteria, fungus and parasites can cause infectious encephalitis more rarely.
Amoebas are single-celled organisms usually found in water, wet soil, rotting vegetation, animals and humans. Although most types are harmless, a few of them such as Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri can produce life-threatening diseases.Read more
Enteroviruses are viruses that cause common infections experienced by all age groups, particularly young children. Most infections cause no symptoms or short lived febrile illnesses, from which people fully recover. However on occasions enteroviruses can inflame the brain or spinal cord causing encephalitis and myelitis.Read more
Herpes simplex encephalitis is a type of infectious encephalitis which happens when herpes simplex virus (HSV) enters the brain. Usually, it begins with ‘flu-like’ symptoms followed by neurological deterioration, which may include personality and behavioural changes, seizures, weakness and difficulties in communication.Read more
Japanese encephalitis is an infectious encephalitis caused by Japanese encephalitis virus transmitted by mosquitoes, called ‘Culex’ mosquitoes.Read more
Measles causes encephalitis in children with measles infection. Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine is a very effective way to prevent against these diseases.Read more
Rabies is a severe acute viral infection of the central nervous system (CNS) that is transmitted by biting animals. Human rabies is a disease with almost 100% fatal outcome (death).Read more
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a type of infectious encephalitis that is caused by a virus spread by ticks. People get infected following a tick bite from on infected tick.Read more
West Nile encephalitis is a type of infectious encephalitis caused by West Nile virus. People usually become infected after being bitten by a mosquito, which has fed on an infected bird.Read more
Zika virus (ZIKV) was first identified in Brazil in 2015. It can cause a wide range of neurological complications.Read more