Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)

ADEM usually affects children and begins after a childhood rash, other viral infections or immunisations. A variety of terminologies were used to describe it such as post-viral, post-infectious or para-infectious. Read more

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in children

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) usually affects children and begins after a childhood rash (exanthema), other viral infections or immunisations. Read more

Hashimoto's encephalopathy

Hashimoto's encephalopathy is a rare condition, which is probably of autoimmune origin. The concept of HE is becoming fragmented into a number of other types of autoimmune encephalitis which appear to have their own autoantibodies, prognosis and associated features. Read more

LGI1/CASPR2-antibody encephalitis

LGI1/CASPR2-antibody encephalitis is an autoimmune encephalitis in which antibodies target LGI1 (leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1) or CASPR2 (contactin-associated protein 2). Initially, typically, family members notice seizures and/or that their relative becomes forgetful, confused, drowsy and withdrawn. Read more

Limbic encephalitis

The term ‘limbic encephalitis’ (LE) describes the condition when limbic areas of the brain are inflamed (swollen) and consequently not functioning properly. Most forms of LE fall into two main categories: infectious encephalitis and autoimmune encephalitis. Read more

NMDAR antibody encephalitis

NMDAR antibody encephalitis is an autoimmune disease that causes psychiatric features, confusion, memory loss and seizures followed by a movement disorder, loss of consciousness and changes in blood pressure, heart rate and temperature. Read more

Rasmussen's encephalitis

Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE), also called Rasmussen syndrome, is a rare, progressive, chronic encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) characterised by seizures, progressive hemiparesis and cognitive loss (learning difficulties). Read more